Completion of module testing does not necessarily mean that testing of the program is completed. In fact, the testing process is just starting, especially if the program is large or is a software product. This idea is confirmed through the following definition of the software error:
The program has an error if its execution does not satisfy the user’s expectations.
It is clear that even an exhaustive testing of a program module in no way would guarantee the detection of all software errors (in accordance with the definition given above). This is one of the reasons you need to develop another test for further investigation of the product.
Another reason is related to a preliminary description of why software errors occur. The fact is that software development is largely a process of transferring information about the final program and transferring this information from one form to another. In addition, the vast majority of software errors are caused by failures in work activity management, lack of understanding and distortions in the process of transferring and translating information.
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The development process can be divided into several steps:
- The needs of a future user of the program being developed are specified in a document describing the set of requirements for the product under development.
- By evaluating feasibility and cost, resolving conflicting requirements, prioritizing between development and delivery, these requirements are brought into precisely formulated objectives.
- Based on these goals, a detailed and precise specification of the final software product is created, with the product itself being treated as a black box and taking into account only its interfaces and interactions with the outside world (for example, with the end user). This is an external specification.
- System design is performed if the software product is a system (for example, an operating system, an air traffic control system, a database management system, a personnel accounting system), rather than a program (for example, a compiler, a payroll program, a text format program). In this step, the system is divided into separate programs, components or subsystems, and their interfaces are defined.
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